Mitral stenosis

 

(needs work)

 

Disease:

Causes

·      Degeneration

·      Rheumatic (overseas born, Aborigines)

·      Connective tissue disease

·      Congenital

Complications

Forward:

·      Fixed cardiac output

·      Stroke

Backward:

·      Left atrial enlargement

·      Atrial arrhythmias

·      Pulmonary oedema

·      Pulmonary hypertension

·      Right heart failure

 

Grading:

 

Mild

Moderate

Severe

Mean gradient

<5

5-10

>10

Valve area

>1.5

1.0-1.5

<1.0

 

Anaesthesia:

Goals

Maintain cardiac output

·      ↓Rate and sinus rhythm

·      ↑Preload

·      ↑Afterload