Gastrointestinal examination

 

General inspection

·     Conscious state: ↑↓

·     Colour: pale, yellow

·     Body habitus: cachexia, abdominal distension

 

 

 

Vital signs

·     Nothing in particular

 

Hands

·     CLD: clubbing, leukonychia, palmar erythema

·     Liver failure: asterixis

 

 

Head and neck

·     Eyes: scleral icterus

·     Mouth: foetor hepaticus, gingivitis, atrophic glossitis

·     Neck + axilla: lymph nodes

 

 

 

Thorax

·     CLD: gynaecomastia, capita medusae

 

Abdomen

·     Inspection: distension, scars, bruising, veins, scratch marks

·     Palpation: all quadrants, liver edge, spleen, kidneys

·     Percussion: liver size, ascites

·     Auscultation: bowel sounds

 

 

 

 

Nether regions

·     Hernial orifices

·     Inguinal lymph nodes

·     Scrotum if male

·     Rectum

 

 

 

 

Bedside test

·     Urinalysis

 

 

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