Gastrointestinal examination

 

General inspection

·      Conscious state: ↑↓

·      Colour: pale, yellow

·      Body habitus: cachexia, abdominal distension

Vital signs

·      Nothing in particular

Hands

·      CLD: clubbing, leukonychia, palmar erythema

·      Liver failure: asterixis

Head and neck

·      Eyes: scleral icterus

·      Mouth: foetor hepaticus, gingivitis, atrophic glossitis

·      Neck + axilla: lymph nodes

Abdomen

·      Inspection: distension, scars, bruising, veins, scratch marks

·      Palpation: all quadrants, liver edge, spleen, kidneys

·      Percussion: liver size, ascites

·      Auscultation: bowel sounds

Nether regions

·      Hernial orifices

·      Inguinal lymph nodes

·      Scrotum if male

·      Rectum

Bedside test

·      Urinalysis

 

 

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