Respiratory examination

 

General inspection

·     Conscious state: ↑↓

·     Respiratory effort: ↑↓, accessory muscle use, pursed lips

·     Colour: pink, blue

·     Body habitus: cachexia

·     Syndrome

 

 

 

 

 

Vital signs

·     RR and regularity

·     SpO2

 

 

Hands

·     Chronic hypoxia: cyanosis, clubbing

·     Hypercapnoea: asterixis, bounding pulse

·     Cancer: ulnar wasting, HPOA

·     Smoking: tar staining

 

 

 

 

Head and neck

·     Eyes: conjunctival pallor and Horner’s syndrome

·     Face: cyanosis, plethora, Pemberton’s sign

·     Neck: tracheal position, supraclav lymph nodes

·     Voice: RLN palsy hoarseness

 

 

 

 

Chest

*Anterior, lateral and posterior*

·     Inspection: scars, deformity, barrel chest

·     Palpation: bilateral expansion

·     Percussion

·     Auscultation

·     Vocal resonance

 

 

 

 

 

 

Praecordium

·     Cor pulmonale: loud P2, parasternal heave

 

Bedside test

·     PEFR

·     Spirometry

 

 

 

 

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