PS61 2017: CICO

 

List:

·         Background

o   Definition

o   Significance

·         Management

o   Ways to oxygenate

o   Process of transition

o   Optimisation of attempts

·         Prevention: technical

o   Airway pre-assessment

o   Chickening out

o   Airway timeout

o   Pre-oxygenation

·         Prevention: non-technical

o   Organisational errors

o   Team errors

o   Individual errors

 

CICO BACKGROUND

 

Definition:

·         Upper airway obstructed

·         Supraglottic techniques failed

·         SpO2 <90%

 

Significance:

·         High mortality

·         More common in ICU and A&E

·         Research suggests our technical and non-technical preparation is poor

 

CICO MANAGEMENT

 

Ways to oxygenate:

·         Mask

·         LMA

·         ETT

·         Hole

 

Process of transition:

·         If fail at 1: declare problem + get help + consider wakeup (yeah, right)

·         If fail at 2: prepare for FONA

·         If fail at 3: declare CICO + do FONA

 

Optimisation of attempts:

·         General: positioning, suction, muscle relaxant

·         Bag-mask: different size mask, OPA, NPA, two hands, clear oropharynx

·         LMA x 2: different size or type

·         ETT x 3: BURP, bougie, different size direct laryngoscope, video laryngoscope, bronchoscope via ILMA

 

PREVENTION OF CICO: technical aspects

 

[A] Airway pre-assessment:

1.       Are there any red flags?

a.       Airway infection

b.       Airway cancer

c.       Airway trauma

d.       Congenital abnormality

2.       Will airway procedures be difficult?

a.       Bag-mask ventilation? (elderly, obese, no teeth, beard, snorer)

b.       LMA insertion? (small mouth)

c.       LMA ventilation? (obese, stiff neck, abnormal anatomy, stiff lungs)

d.       Intubation? (MP, TMD, IID, neck ROM)

e.       Extubation?

f.        FONA? (obesity)

3.       What are the stakes?

a.       Does surgery affect the airway?

b.       What is the aspiration risk?

c.       What is the patient’s cardioresp reserve?

 

[B] Consider chickening out:

·         Consider AFOI

·         Consider awake tracheostomy

·         Consider regional

·         Consider postponing

 

[C] Airway time-out always:

·         Plan A + B + C + D

·         Discuss with team

·         Ensure equipment available

·         Consider pre-rehearsal

 

[D] Pre-oxygenation +/- apnoeic oxygenation:

·         Face mask or HFNP

·         Big breaths in and out

 

PREVENTION OF CICO: non-technical aspects

 

Preventing organizational errors:

·         Adherence to best practice guidelines

·         Standardised equipment

·         Airway registry and alerts

·         Letters for tricky patients

·         Checklists

·         Audit

·         Incident reporting

·         Safety culture

 

Preventing team errors: simulation training

·         Application of cognitive aids

·         Emergency planning

·         Airway timeout

·         Allocation of roles

·         Procedural skills

·         Use of equipment

 

Preventing individual cognitive errors:

·         Leadership

o   Create shared mental models

o   Allocation of roles

o   Regular status updates

·         Communication

o   Use standardized definition to recognize and declare CICO

o   Closed-loop communication

·         Humility

o   Call for help early

o   Invite others to speak up

·         Navel gazing

o   Self-awareness

o   Preventing fatigue

o   Preventing high task workload

 

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