2021B12 Describe the effects of perioperative hypothermia. DO NOT discuss mechanisms of heat loss.

 

Hypothermia: core temp <36C

 

Direct effects:

Metabolic rate

      ↓temp 1C = ↓metabolic rate 7%

o  ↓Rate of enzymatic reactions

o  ↓ATP hydrolysis

o  ↓Oxidative phosphorylation

o  ↓Krebs cycle activity

o  ↓Glycolysis (-> hyperglycaemia)

o  ↓Drug metabolism (e.g. Hofmann degradation of cisatracurium)

Acid-base

      ↑pH 0.015 per 1C (Rosenthal equation). Multiple factors:

o  ↓Water dissociation into H+ and OH-

o  ↓Metabolic rate -> ↓VCO2

o  ↑CO2 solubility -> ↓partial pressure

      N.B. ↑pH ↑pH of ICF pH of neutrality

o  Favours alpha stat management: i.e. allow pH to increase

  Optimal acid-base buffering in ICF

  Trapping of metabolic intermediates in ICF

  Preserved function of enzymes and ion channels

  Preserved CBF autoregulation

o  Alternative: pH stat management

  Luxury cerebral perfusion

  Rapid homogenous cooling

Cardiovascular

      Electrical:

o  Slowed conduction: bradycardia, prolonged QT, (J wave)

o  Arrhythmias: AF, VF (arrest at 28C)

o  Resistance to defibrillation

      Haemodynamic:

o  Vasoconstriction -> ↑SVR and ↑PVR

o  If shivering: ↑metabolic rate -> ↑venous return -> ↑cardiac output

o  If paralysed: the opposite

Respiratory

      Respiratory depression:

o  Mainly premature neonates

o  ↓RR

o  ↓Brainstem sensitivity to CO2

      Reduced oxygenation (and ↑SvO2)

o  ↓Metabolic rate -> ↓VO2

o  Left shift OHDC -> ↓tissue uptake

Neurological

      Peripheral:

o  Shivering (if not paralysed)

o  Hyporeflexia

      Central:

o  ↓Metabolic rate = cerebral protection

o  ↓Seizures

o  ↓MAC, ↓propofol Cp50

o  ↓GCS (confusion) if severe

Renal

      ↓ADH synthesis -> cold diuresis

Haematological

      ↑Viscosity -> ↑afterload

      Coagulopathy:

o  <35C platelet dysfunction

o  <33C factor dysfunction

Immunological

      ↓WBC activity -> ↑susceptibility to infection (if <36C)

 

Compensation:

Behavioural

Mediated by hypothalamus and cortex, absent under GA:

      Shelter

      Insulation

      Motor activity -> ↑metabolic rate

Autonomic

Mediated by hypothalamus, impaired under GA:

      Peripheral vasoconstriction -> ↓skin blood flow 3x

      Shivering -> ↑metabolic rate 2-3x

      Brown fat metabolism (neonates only)

 

 

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