Absolute blood flow (mL/min):

Liver

1400

Skeletal muscle

1200

Kidneys

1100

Brain

750

Other

600

Skin

500

Heart

250

 

Relative blood flow (mL/min/100g):

Kidney

-Cortex

-Medulla

420

450

20

Liver

100

Heart

83

Brain

58

Skin

12.5

Skeletal muscle

4

 

Absolute oxygen consumption (mL/min):

Liver

51

Skeletal muscle

50

Brain

46

Heart

29

Kidney

18

Skin

12

 

Relative oxygen consumption (mL/min/100g):

Heart

9.7

Kidney

6

Brain

3.3

Liver

2

Skin

0.3

Skeletal muscle

0.2

 

Flow rates and cross-sectional area:

 

Flow rate

Cross-sectional area

Pressure wave velocity

Aorta

20cm/s

4cm2

4cm/s

Capillaries

0.5mm/s

2800cm2

8cm/

Venae cavae

12cm/2

7cm2

16cm/s

 

Starling forces: general

 

Arterial end (mmHg)

Venous end (mmHg)

Pc

35

15

Pc

0

0

πc

28

28

πi

3

3

Net

+10mmHg (net filtration)

-10mmHg (net reabsorption)

 

Starling forces: glomerulus:

 

Afferent arteriolar end (mmHg)

Efferent arteriolar end (mmHg)

PGC

60

58

PBC

15

15

πGC

21

33

πBC

0

0

Net

+24mmHg

+10mmHg

 

Neonate vs adult:

 

Neonate

Adult

O2 consumption

7-8mL/kg/min

3-4mL/kg/min

Cardiac output

280mL/kg/min

70mL/kg/min

Myocardial fibre tension

Resting higher

Developed lower

Resting lower

Developed higher

SBP

70-90

120

Physiological R->L shunt

20%

7%

Blood volume

80mL/kg

70mL/kg

 

 

 

Level of larynx

C3-4

C6

Diaphragmatic type 1 fibres

10%

55%

Intercostal type 1 fibres

20%

65%

Narrowest point

Cricoid ring

Glottis

Respiratory rate

30-40

12-16

TV

5-8mL/kg

5-8mL/kg

MV

220mL/kg/min

110mL/kg/min

VA

140mL/kg/min

70mL/kg/min

V/Q

0.4

0.8

pH

7.34-7.36

7.4

PaO2

50-70mmHg

100mmHg

PaCO2

32-26mmHg

40mmHg

VA:FRC ratio

5:1

1.5:1

Specific compliance

 

 

Airway resistance

90->25cmH2O/L/s

2cmH2O/L/s

 

 

 

RBF

5% CO

25% CO

Max urine osmolality

600mOsm/L

1400

Haemoglobin

17-18

11-12 in child

13-14

HbF

90% in utero

75% at birth

1-2%

Vit K dependent clotting factors

5-20%

 

BSL

2.7-3.3mmol/L

(premmie 2.2)

4-7mmol/L

Glycogen store

4g/kg

(N.B. at 33/40: 9g only!)

8g/kg

SA:BW (relative

2-2.5

1

TNZ

32-34 (prem 35-36)

18-22 clothed, 28-30 naked

NMJ maturation:

Complete at 2/12

 

Nephron maturation:

Complete at 6/12

 

Liver maturation:

Complete at 2y

 

 

Placental gas exchange:

 

Uterine artery

Uterine vein

Umbilical artery

Umbilical vein

pO2 (mmHg)

105

40

15

30

SO2

100%

75%

40%

80%

O2 content (mL/100mL)

16

12

10

16

pCO2 (mmHg)

30

45

55

40

CO2 content (mL/100mL)

48

52

44

37

 

Nerve fibre types:

Type

Function

Size (μm)

Conduction velocity (m/s)

Myelination

LA sensitivity

Motor

Proprioception

12-20

70-120

Heavy

+

Light touch

Vibration

5-12

30-70

Heavy

++

Tone

Spindles

3-6

15-30

Heavy

+++

Sharp pain

Cold temperature

2-5

12-30

Heavy

++++

B

Pre-ganglionic:

SNS and PSNS

<3

3-15

Light

++++++

C-polymodal

Dull pain

Warm temperature

0.4-1.2

0.5-2.3

None

+++++

C-SNS

Post-ganglionic:

SNS vasomotor

0.3-1.3

0.7-2.3

None

+++++

 

Adrenoceptors:

α1

Gq G protein coupled receptor (GPCR)

↑IP3/Ca2+, ↑DAG

·      Vasoconstriction, venoconstriction
(especially splanchnic, mucocutaneous)

·      Inhibition of insulin release

·      Mydriasis

α2

Gi GPCR

↓Adenylyl cyclase

↓cAMP

Peripheral:

·      Vasoconstriction – post-synaptic)

·      ↓Noradrenaline release pre-synaptic

·      ↓Platelet aggregation (pretty sure)

·      ↓Salivation (and more sticky)

·      ↓Shivering

Central: (especially locus coeruleus)

·      Analgesia: pre-synaptic inhibition

·      Premedication, anxiolysis, sedation, ↓MAC, ↓CMRO2

β1

Gs GPCR

↑Adenylyl cyclase

↑cAMP

↑Protein kinase A

·      ↑Inotropy, chronotropy, dromotropy, lusitropy

·      ↑Renin release from JG cell

·      ↑Glycogenolysis in skeletal muscle and liver

·      ↑Lipolysis in fat

β2

Gs GPCR

↑cAMP

↓MLCK activity

↑MLCP activity

·      ↑Chronotropy, dromotropy > ↑inotropy, ↑lusitropy

·      Vasodilatation (especially in skeletal muscle)

·      Bronchodilatation

·      Myometrial relaxation

·      Na+K+ATPase stimulation, ↓ECF [K+]

·      ↑Glycogenolysis in liver and skeletal muscle, lactic acidosis

·      Tremor

·      ↓Mast cell histamine release

 

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